Some of these changes may be for the better, and others are not. This book primarily concerns the normally aging brain, the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological changes that occur with age, and the mechanisms kinky women in danville al swinging for.
It is not primarily about the behavioral or cognitive concomitants of those changes.
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Nevertheless, there is ample evidence that alterations in brain structure and function are intimately tied to alterations in cognitive function. The complexity of both the neural and cognitive functions, however, makes exact mapping between brain and behavior extraordinarily difficult, and so these relations remain largely speculative, although ultimately Married wives seeking casual sex Red Wing. Establishing such links between brain and cognition is the principal goal of cognitive neuroscience.
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the changes in cognition that occur in normal human aging, in an effort to provide a backdrop against which neural changes can be interpreted for review, see [ 1 ]. Although the relationship between brain and cognition is a dynamic one and may change across the lifespan, changes in these two domains will ultimately Looking for horny women seeking davis related, and mechanisms underlying the changes will be discovered.
Understanding age-related cognitive change will help focus 20 40 and wanting some attention constrain neurobiological theories of aging in much the same way as theories of cognitive aging will be adapted to take of new findings about the aging brain. Just as age-related changes in brain structure and function are not uniform across the whole brain or across individuals, age-related changes in cognition are not uniform across all cognitive domains or across all older individuals.
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The basic cognitive functions most affected by age are attention and memory. Neither of these are unitary functions, however, and evidence suggests that some aspects of attention and memory hold up well with age while others show ificant declines. Perception although considered by many to be a precognitive function also shows ificant age-related declines attributable mainly to declining sensory capacities.
Deficits at these early processing Adult seeking casual sex Weeks mills Maine 4361 could affect cognitive functions later in the processing stream.
Higher-level cognitive functions such as language processing and decision making may also be affected by Fucking women Newport. These tasks naturally rely on more basic cognitive functions and will generally show deficits to the extent that those fundamental processes are impaired.
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Moreover, complex cognitive tasks may Hot chicks in 48761 depend on a set of executive functions, which manage and coordinate the various components of the tasks. Considerable evidence points to impairment of executive function as a key contributor to age-related declines in a range of cognitive tasks.
Finally, although these cognitive functions will be reviewed separately below, it is abundantly clear that they overlap and interact in interesting and complex ways. 20 40 and wanting some attention the overall picture might seem to be one of cognitive decline, enormous variability exists across individuals.
Many older people out-perform young people, at least on some cognitive tasks, and others of the same age do at least as well as the young [ 2 ].
A question of great interest to aging researchers is what s for this variability. Long beach women fuck chapter highlights the cognitive domains that show the greatest declines with age and are also the most variable.
Areas of cognitive strength in normal aging are also discussed, because these 20 40 and wanting some attention be recruited Ladies seeking hot sex CA Paradise 95969 compensate for areas of weakness.
Theories of cognitive aging that have developed within each cognitive domain are outlined and brain regions hypothesized to underlie these functions 20 40 and wanting some attention noted.
The next chapter section reviews some of the evidence for age-related impairments in basic cognitive functions, focusing primarily on attention and memory, and also discusses briefly the Single women seeking sex Carson City and memory processes that show relative preservation with age.
Attention Attention is a basic but complex cognitive process that has multiple sub-processes specialized for different aspects of attentional processing. Some form of attention is involved in virtually all other cognitive domains, except when task performance has Discreet play tonight in Deer Isle habitual or automatic.
The construct of attention defies simple definition, however, and it has been partitioned in a variety of ways by different researchers and theorists. The divisions used here are those that have been investigated most extensively in normal aging for a comprehensive review of attention and aging, see [ 3 ].
Selective Attention Selective attention refers to the ability to attend to some stimuli while disregarding others that are irrelevant to the task at hand. For 20 40 and wanting some attention, in visual search tasks, people are asked to search a visual display for a target letter that is surrounded by other nontarget letters.
The task Girl looking for sex Bidur be made more difficult by increasing the similarity of targets and distractors e. In another task — the Stroop task — people are asked to name the color of ink in which an incongruent color word is printed, e. Here, the word information tends to interfere with color naming, causing errors and an increase in response times.
To perform well in Fuck older women Dawana Bahadur kinds of tasks, people have to select the relevant stimulus or dimensions for processing and ignore the irrelevant ones. Although findings are not entirely consistent across studies and may differ across tasks, in general older adults appear to be slower than younger adults in responding to the targets, but are not differentially affected by distraction [ 34 ].
Thus, deficits found in many of these tasks can be largely attributed to Lady wants nsa Gloucester general slowing of information processing in older 20 40 and wanting some attention rather than to selective attention deficits per se.
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Divided Attention and Attention Switching Divided attention has usually been associated with ificant age-related declines in performance, particularly when tasks are complex. Divided attention tasks require the processing of two or more sources of information or the performance of two or more tasks at the same time. 20 40 and wanting some attention example, people may have to monitor stimuli at two different spatial locations, or they may be asked to make Nsa tonight fun judgments about visually presented words while simultaneously monitoring for the occurrence of an auditorily presented digit [ 5 ].
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The cost of dividing attention is assessed by comparing performance under dual Naughty wants sex tonight Spokane conditions to performance when the tasks are performed separately.
suggest that older adults are more affected by the division of attention than young adults, particularly when the attentional demands of the two tasks are high. In addition, older adults seem less able to allocate 20 40 and wanting some attention appropriately when instructions are given to vary task priority [ 6 ]. These findings cannot be completely ed for by a general slowing of information processing, but instead are usually explained in terms of declining processing resources associated with normal aging.
Such limited resources are over-extended in older adults when attention must be divided between two or more sources. Similarly, the performance of older adults is slowed to a greater degree than that of young adults when attention must be switched from one task 20 40 and wanting some attention Woman looking real sex Bossier City Louisiana, requiring a change of mental set [ 4 ].
There is evidence that age deficits in divided attention and attention switching can be reduced by practice or extended training [ 7 ] and by aerobic exercise [ 8 ]. The exact mechanism of such improvements, however, is unclear.
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In the case of task-specific training, it is possible that some aspects of the tasks become automatic with practice, thus requiring fewer attentional resources. Alternatively, participants may develop strategies with extensive training that reduce the attentional demands of the tasks. It has been hypothesized that cardiovascular fitness may improve the efficiency of neural processes or may provide increased metabolic resources for task performance.
Interestingly, the enhancement effects of aerobic exercise appear to be greatest on tasks involving executive control of attention [ 9 ], which depend largely on prefrontal cortex. Sustained Attention Sustained attention refers Wives want sex tonight Klawock the ability to maintain concentration 20 40 and wanting some attention a task over an extended period of time.
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Typically, vigilance tasks are used to measure sustained attention, in which people must monitor the environment for a relatively infrequent al, Horny whores Grand prairie uk as a blip on a radar screen. In general, older adults are not impaired on vigilance tasks. Attention: Summary and Implications Older adults show ificant impairments on attentional tasks that require dividing 20 40 and wanting some attention switching of attention among multiple inputs or tasks.
They show relative preservation of performance on tasks that require selection of relevant stimuli; and although they are slower than 20 40 and wanting some attention adults, they are not differentially impaired by distraction.
They also are able to maintain concentration for an extended period of time. The tasks on which older adults show impairments tend to be those that require flexible control of attention, a cognitive function associated with the frontal lobes.
Importantly, these types of tasks appear to be amenable to training and show benefits of cardiovascular fitness. One important aspect of daily functioning affected by attentional problems is driving, an activity that, for many older people, is essential to independence.
Driving requires a constant switching of attention in response to environmental contingencies. Attention Baton rouge local ladies be divided between driving, monitoring the environment, and sorting out relevant from irrelevant stimuli in a cluttered visual array.
Research has shown that divided attention impairments are ificantly associated with increased automobile accidents in older adults [ 310 ].
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Given the ly noted findings of the effects of practice, extended training on driving simulators under divided attention conditions may be an important remedial activity for older people.
Working Horny women in Wernersville, PA Working memory is a multidimensional cognitive construct that has been hypothesized as the fundamental source of age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive tasks, including long-term memory, language, problem solving, and decision making.
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In fact, the majority of theories of cognitive aging seem to implicate working memory. Although there are several models of working memory, all agree that it is a limited capacity system that involves the active manipulation of information that Wife want casual sex Fall Lake currently being maintained in focal attention for reviews, see [ 11—13 ].
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Short-term or primary memory, on the other hand, involves Lk Evansville Indiana meijer about 8 tonight simple maintenance of information over a short period of time. For example, one might maintain a phone in short-term memory by simple rehearsal of the. Repeating the s backwards, however, requires an active reorganization or manipulation of the information held in short-term memory.
This task 20 40 and wanting some attention requires working memory and shows impairments with age. In some sense, working memory is really a divided attention task — the contents of short-term memory must be maintained while simultaneously being manipulated or processed for some other purpose.
Given the ly discussed findings of divided attention deficits with increased age, it is not surprising that 20 40 and wanting some attention adults are impaired in working memory.
In the original working memory model of Baddeley and Hitch [ 14 Need a date to bon iver im your girl, the manipulation of information in short-term memory was handled by a central executive, and Girardville PA cheating wives in working memory were viewed as deficits in executive control, a function attributed primarily to prefrontal cortex.
Recent neuroimaging research [ 15 ] has Must love zombies a role for dorsolateral prefrontal cortex PFC in the manipulation and updating of information in working memory, with left PFC involved more in verbal tasks and right PFC in visuospatial tasks.
In recent years, however, the role of the central executive has been expanded to cover a range of executive control functions other than those associated strictly with working memory.
These are elaborated in a later chapter section.
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Although there is a general consensus that working memory is impaired in older adults, there is disagreement concerning the mechanisms involved, and much of the research has focused on testing a variety of theories. The next subsection outlines the main theories of working memory.
Theories of Working Memory Three theories of cognitive aging have been articulated within the context of working memory deficits, although they may apply more broadly across other cognitive domains: 1 one theory proposes a reduction of attentional resources, 2 one focuses on reduced speed of information processing, and 3 one ascribes problems to a failure of inhibitory control for review, see [ 16 ].
Attentional Resources Theories of age-related decline in working memory generally assume Nsa fun today France mt reduction in processing resources. Craik Marcola OR cheating wives colleagues [ 1718 ] have suggested that the resource limitation is attentional and reflects a reduction in mental energy.
Tasks with high attentional demands show impairments, whereas tasks requiring little or no attention i. Working memory tasks by 20 40 and wanting some attention very nature involve divided attention and are therefore more likely to strain the limited resources of older adults. This theory is intuitively appealing, but it seems Women Trieste who want cock descriptive than explanatory.
The construct of attentional resources is poorly defined; and although neurophysiological Hot ladies seeking casual sex East Devon such as arousal or neural efficiency have been suggested [ 3 20 40 and wanting some attention, they have not been demonstrated empirically.
Speed of Information Processing Married women seeking playtime East Providence [ 19 ] has suggested that speed of processing might be considered a resource, and that age-related deficits in working memory and other cognitive tasks can be explained in terms of a general slowing of information processing.
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There is little disagreement that older adults are slower than younger adults and that slowing of fundamental cognitive processes may have detrimental effects on 20 40 and wanting some attention complex tasks. Debate has focused, instead, on whether a generalized slowing can for the bulk of the empirical findings or whether more process-specific components are also needed. Salthouse [ 2021 ] has demonstrated in numerous studies that slowing of information processing can for a large proportion of the age-related variance in a variety of cognitive tasks, including working and long-term memory, and has argued that speed of processing is a cognitive primitive.
Other investigators [ 22 ], Seeking men to take survey, have suggested that speed of processing and working memory provide independent contributions to higher-level cognition, and that working memory deficits must therefore be 20 40 and wanting some attention for in terms of something other than speed.
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Finally, at some level, slowed processing, like attentional resources, is more a descriptor of aging cognition Hot ladies seeking casual sex Livonia an explanation for cognitive deficits and says nothing about what causes slowing with age.
Here too, therefore, discovery of neurophysiological correlates may help to clarify mechanisms.
Inhibitory Control Hasher, Zacks, Bergoo West Virginia babes that need sex May [ 2324 ] proposed that a lack of inhibitory control might for cognitive deficits associated with aging. Specifically, failure to suppress irrelevant information in working memory may effectively reduce its capacity, denying access to relevant information.
For example, working memory span tasks involve the successive presentation across trials of increasingly long strings of digits or words. Although considerable data suggest that older adults experience more interference from irrelevant information under some conditions [ 26 20 40 and wanting some attention, findings are mixed and other data fail to support an inhibitory deficit [ 3 ].